Scientific Studies

Studies Listed in the Following Categories

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome


Gulf War Syndrome




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General Database of MCS & Related Scientific Study Abstracts (Last Updated 5/2007)


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Research on Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) Compiled by Professor Anne C. Steinemann and Amy L. Davis

University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2700

This document lists citations for peer-reviewed journal articles that support a physiological basis for MCS.


Organization Specific Research


Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Research (James Madison University)


Free Full Text Studies:


Baines CJ, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Riley N, Cole DEC, Marshall L , Loescher B, Jazmaji V (2004) Occup Med (Lond) 54: 408-418
Case-control study of multiple chemical sensitivity, comparing haematology, biochemistry, vitamins and serum volatile organic compound measures


Block ML, Calderón-Garcidueñas L.  Trends Neurosci. 2009 Sep;32(9):506-16. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

Air pollution: mechanisms of neuroinflammation and CNS disease.


Brotman, KW.  2008;April 5. (not peer reviewed)

Challenges Faced by Students with MCS (Multiple Chemical Sensitivities) In a Traditional School Environment


Caress SM, Steinemann AC.  Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep;111(12):1490-7.
A review of a two-phase population study of multiple chemical sensitivities


Cecil KM, Brubaker CJ, Adler CM, Dietrich KN, Altaye M, et al. (2008) PLoS Med5(5): e112.

Decreased Brain Volume in Adults with Childhood Lead Exposure.


Crow,J.  Oxygen Society Educational Program. 2002.
Peroxynitrite (ONOO-): Scavenging for survival


Chiara De Luca,1* Desanka Raskovic,1 Valeria Pacifico,1 Jeffrey Chung Sheun Thai,2 and Liudmila Korkinal. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 July; 8(7): 2770–2797.
The Search for Reliable Biomarkers of Disease in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and Other Environmental Intolerances

Eltiti S, Wallace D, Ridgewell A, Zougkou K, Russo Rz, Sepulveda F, Mirshekar-Syahkal D, Rasor P, Deeble R, & Fox E.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  24 July 2007.

Does Short-Term Exosure to Mobile Phone Base Station Signals Increase Symptoms in Individuals who Report Sensitivity to Electromagnetic Fields?  A Double-Blind Randomized Provocation Study.


Fitzgerald, J.  Environmental Health.  2009.  8(3).
Studies on Self-Reported MCS in South Australia

Frances J. Storrs. Dermatitis.  2007;18(1):3-7.
Allergen of the Year: Fragrance


Gibson, P.R. (in press). Care for Women International.

Of the world but not in it: Barriers to community access and education for persons with environmental sensitivities.


Gibson, P.R. (2009). Disability & Society, 24(2), 187-199. Author posting. (c) Taulor & Francis, 2007.

Chemical and electromagnetic exposures as disability barriers: Environmental sensitivity.


Gibson, P.R., & Vogel, V.M. (2009).  Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 72-81 

Sickness related dysfunction in persons with self reported multiple chemical sensitivity at four levels of severity.


Gibson PR, Cheavens J, Warren M.  James Madison University. 1996.

Chemical Sensitivity/Chemical Injury and Life Disruption


Gibson PR, Placek E, Lane J, Brohimer SO, Lovelace AC. Qual Health Res. 2005 Apr;15(4):502-24.

Disability induced identity changes in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity


Gibson PR.  No Date.  James Madison University

Multiple chemical sensitivity, culture and delegitimization: A feminist analysis


Gibson PR, Cheavens J, Warren ML.  Res Nurs Health. 1998 Apr;21(2):103-15.

Social support in persons with self-reported sensitivity to chemicals 


Gibson PR, Elms AN, Ruding LA.  Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep;111(12):1498-504.
Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity


Gross L.  PLoS Biol. 2007 Jun 26;5(7):e193

The Toxic Origins of Disease


Heuser G, Axelrod P, Heuser S.  IPPH. 2000 13:1-16.

Defining Chemical Injury:  A Diagnostic Protocol and Profile of Chemically Injured Civilains, Industrial Workers and Gulf War.


Hocking B.  World Health Organization Seminar on EMF Hyerpsensitivity.  2007.

A physicians approach to EMF sensitive patients.


Hooper M PhD, B Pharm, C Chem, MRIC. Chief Scientific Advisor to the Gulf War Veterans 2003 (Paper Only)

Engaging with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity


Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Böhm C, Weber R, Buchbauer G.  Chem Senses. 2001 Mar;26(3):281-92.

Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation.


Koch, L.  2004 Kent State University Center for Disability Studies

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity & Rehabilitation Planning Implications


Lin TC, Krishnaswamy G, Chi DS.  Clin Mol Allergy. 2008 Apr 25;6(1):3

Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease. 


LoPachin RM, DeCaprio AP.  Toxicological Sciences 2005 86(2):214-225.

Protein Adduct Formation as a Molecular Mechanism in Neurtoxicity


Louis, GB (2006).  World Health Organization.  Environmental Health Criteria 237.
Principals for Evaluating Health Risks in Children Associated with Exposure to Chemicals.


McKeown-Eyssen G, Baines C, Cole DE, Riley N, Tyndale RF, Marshall L, Jazmaji V.Int J Epidemiol. 2004 Oct;33(5):971-8. Epub 2004 Jul 15.
Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR


McKeown, D.  Toronto Public Health.  2005.

Environmental Threats to Children:  Understanding the Risks, Enabling Prevention


Miller CS, Ashford N, Doty R, Lamielle M, Otto D, Rahill A, Wallace L.  Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105 Suppl 2:515-9.
Empirical approaches for the investigation of toxicant-induced loss of tolerance


Miller CS.  Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105 Suppl 2:445-53. Review.
Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance--an emerging theory of disease?


Miller CS.  Addiction.  2000 96(1):115-139. 

Toxicant Induced Loss of Tolerance


Morello-Frosch R, Brody JG, Brown P, Altman RG, Rudel RA, and Pérez C. Environmental Health 2009, 8.
Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

Nakazawa H, Ikeda H, Yamashita T, Hara I, Kumai Y, Endo G, Endo Y.  (2005)  Ind Health. 2005 Apr;43(2):341-5. 

A case of sick building syndrome in a Japanese office worker.


National Center for Environmental Health (2000)

CDC Summary of Public Comments Received for the MCS Sensitivity Report


No Authors Listed.  Arch Environ Health. 1999 May-Jun;54(3):147-9

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity:  A 1999 Consensus


Nussbaumer LL.  2005.  South Dakota State University.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity:  The Controversy and Relation to Interior Design

Pall ML.  Washington State University School of Molecular Biosciences.  2006,
The NO/ONOO- Cycle as the Cause of Fibromyalgia and Related Illnesses:  Etiology, Explanation, and Effective Therapy


Pall ML.  Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep;111(12):1461-4.

Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity: central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism


Pall ML.  Br J Gen Pract. 2002 Sep;52(482):762; author reply 763-4. 

NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity


Poppa V, Teulescu, D, Stanescu, D & Gavrilescu, N.  Chest.  1969;56:395-404.
Bronchial Asthma and Asthmatic Bronchitis Determined by Simple Chemicals


Rea WJ.  Ear, Nose, and Throat Journal, Vol 67, No 1, January 1988

Chemical Hypersensitivity and the Allergic Response


Saito M, Kumano H, Yoshiuchi K, Kokubo N, Ohashi K, Yamamoto Y, Shinohara N, Yanagisawa Y, Sakabe K, Miyata M, Ishikawa S, Kuboki T.   Psychosom Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;67(2):318-25.
Symptom profile of multiple chemical sensitivity in actual life


Schnakenberg E, Fabig KR, Stanulla M, Strobl N, Lustig M, Fabig N, Schloot W.  Environ Health. 2007 Feb 10;6:6

A cross-sectional study of self-reported chemical-related sensitivity is associated with gene variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes


Sears, M. Canadian Human Rights Commission. 2007

The Medical Perspective on Environmental Sensitivities


Silkworth JB, & Loose LD.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  1981.  39:105-28.

Assessment of environmental contaminant-induced lymphocyte dysfunction. 


Silberschmidt, M.  Danish Ministry of the Environment:  Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Project no. 988, 2005.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. 


Steinemann, AC et all.  Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (2011).

Chemical Emissions from Residential Dryer Vents During Use of Fragranced Laundry Products


Steinemann AC. Environ Impact Asses Rev (2008), doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2008.05.002.

Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients


Steinemann AC. 2008.  Environ Impact Asses Rev  REVISED 8/2010
Toxic Chemicals in Fragranced Laundry Products and Health Effects REVISED8-2010

Steinemann AC. 2008.  Environ Impact Asses Rev REVISED 8/2010

Toxic Chemicals in Air Fresheners and Health Effects REVISED8-2010


Steinbrook, R.  January 22, 2009.  360:4,325-327.

Online Disclosure of Physician-Industry Relationships.

VonThieman, G, Spec, T. Tijdschrift voor toegepaste Arbowetenschap. 2008;nr:1.

Health Effects of Construction Materials and Construction Projects


Wilkie, C & Baker, D. Canadian Human Rights Commission. 2007
Accommodation for Environmental Sensitivities: Legal Perspective


World Heath Organization. 2006.

Principles for evaluating Health Risks in Children Associated with Exposure to Chemicals


Ziem G, McTamney J.  Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105 Suppl 2:417-36.

Profile of Patients with Chemical Injury and Sensitivity


Yanick Jr. P,  Towsend Letter. 2005.
Hypoadrenia: a causative factor in MCS and impaired enzymatic detoxification





Aspler A, Bolshin C, Vernon S, Broderick G.  Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2008 4:44 (26 September 2008)
Evidence of Inflammatory Immune Signaling in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood 


Chen R, Liang FX, Moriya J, Yamakawa J, Sumino H, Kanda T, Akahashi T.  J Int Med Res. 2008 Sep-Oct;36(5):867-74.
Chronic fatigue syndrome and the central nervous system


Kelly M, Gagne R, Newman JD, Olney C, Gualtieri C,Trail D.  Irish Medical Journal Online Paper
Assessment of Fibromyalgia & Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A New Protocol Designed to Determine Work Capability - Chronic Pain Abilities Determination (CPAD)


Myhill S, Booth NE, McLaren-Howard J.  Int J Clin Exp Med (2009) 2, 1-16.

Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction


Sullivan A, Nord C, Evengard BNutrition Journal 2009, 8:4 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-4.

Effect of supplement with lactic-acid producing bacteria on fatigue and physical activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome





Bennett RM, Jones J, Turk DC, Russell IJ, Matallana L.  BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007 Mar 9;8:27.

An internet survey of 2,596 people with fibromyalgia. 


Busse, JW, Kulkarni, AV, Badwall, P, Guyatt, G, the Medically Unexplained Syndromes Study Group.  BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 May 31;8(1):24 [Epub ahead ofprint]

Attitudes Towards Fibromyalgia: A Survey of Canadian Chiropractic, Naturopathic, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students 


Davies KA, Macfarlane GJ, Nicholl BI, Dickens C, Morriss R, Ray D, McBeth J.  Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Dec;47(12):1809-13. Epub 2008 Oct 7.

Restorative sleep predicts the resolution of chronic widespread pain: results from the EPIFUND study.


Goldenberg DL, Burckhardt C, Crofford L.  JAMA. 2004 Nov 17;292(19):2388-95.

Management of fibromyalgia syndrome


Kelly M, Gagne R, Newman JD, Olney C, Gualtieri C,Trail D.  Irish Medical Journal Online Paper
Assessment of Fibromyalgia & Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A New Protocol Designed to Determine Work Capability - Chronic Pain Abilities Determination





Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses.  2008
Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans - Scientific Findings and Recommendations




Kelly E.  Eur. J. Oncol., vol. 13, n. 3, pp. 193-195, 2008.

Scientists challenge bioelectromagnetics foundations


Fredrik Soderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L.   Environmental Health 2009, 8:19 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-19.
Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study


Livio Giuliani and Morando Soffritti. European Journal of Oncology Eur. J. Oncol. - Library Vol. 5

Non-Thermal Effects and Mechanisms Of Interaction Between Electromagnetic Fields And Living Matter


Volkow, ND et al.  JAMA. 2011;305(8):808-814

Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism




Buttram HE, Medical Veritas 5.   2008;1820-1827 doi: 10.1588/medver/2008.05.00190

Current childhood vaccine programs: An overview with emphasis on the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine and of its compromising of the mucosal immune system.


James, et al.  Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1611–7.

Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism

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